Directions: Read the passage carefully. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.
A. The greatest advantage of the tutorial system is the individual attention that students receive.
B. Tutorials can be considered the backbone of undergraduate teaching at Oxford.
C. Sometimes, the student may leave a tutorial with only a reading list and the title of the next essay.
D. Tutorials can greatly enhance the undergraduates’ academic performance.
E. The greatest advantage of the tutorial system is the various curriculums that students receive.
F. In the mean time, tutorials are also beneficial for developing students’ skills of critical analysis.
The Tutorial System of Oxford University
In the University of Oxford, teaching is conducted primarily through the tutorial system. It is one of the most unique and well-known methods of teaching across the world.
The weekly tutorial consists of a one-hour meeting between the tutor and small numbers of students (usually two to four). During this time, an essay prepared specifically for that tutorial is read by students and commented upon by the tutor. At the end of the tutorial, the tutor will assign the topic of study for the coming week and suggest readings. 67Meanwhile, they are also complemented by departmental lectures which are conducted on a university wide basis, lab work, and seminars (研讨会) often with groups of perhaps 10 students.
Tutorials have gained their reputation because of the close relationship they maintain between the tutor and the student. The tutorial system provides undergraduates with direct and in most cases weekly contact with tutors in their academic fields.68.
Before the weekly tutorial, students are required to prepare an essay or other works, which they read or present to the tutor. During each tutorial, students are expected to communicate, debate, analyze and critique the ideas of others as well as their own in conversations with the professor and fellow-students. The tutorial system has great value that it creates learning and assessment opportunities which are highly authentic (可靠的) and difficult to fake, as the student’s work is discussed on the spot.
69The contrast between tutorials and large lectures common in the American universities is obvious. In the typical American university, students are taught by the same specialists, in the same manner, and held to the same standards.
However, during tutorials, students have the opportunity to explore their own ideas directly with experts in particular subjects. 70As a result, students must engage in extensive independent reading and research, using the resources available, under the guidance of the tutor.
Directions:Read the following passage. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.
A. But there’s no need for embarrassment.
B. If you want proof, turn on the sports channel.
C. As we grow older, we don’t abandon this system – we internalize it.
D. This so-called inner speech can improve our performance on various tasks.
F. Conducting a dialogue with ourselves might turn out to be one of the keys to human creativity.
E. Psychologists refer to this as private speech – language that is spoken out loud but directed at the self.
Your Own Best Friend
Talking to yourself may seem a little shameful. If you’ve ever been overheard criticizing yourself for a foolish mistake or practicing a tricky speech ahead of time, you’ll have felt the social restriction against communicating with yourself in words. According to the well-known saying, talking to yourself is the first sign of madness.
67 Talking to ourselves, whether out loud or silently in our heads, is a valuable tool for thought. Far from being a sign of foolishness, self-talk allows us to plan what we are going to do, manage our activities, regulate our emotions and even create a narrative of our experience.
Take a trip to any preschool and watch a small child playing with her toys. You are very likely to hear her talking to herself: offering herself directions and giving voice to her frustrations. __68 We do a lot of it when we are young – perhaps one reason for our shyness about continuing with it as adults.
As children, according to the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, we use private speech to regulate our actions in the same way that we use public speech to control the behavior of others. __69__.
Psychological experiments have shown that the distancing effect of our words can give us a valuable perspective on our actions. One recent study suggested that self-talk is most effective when we address ourselves in the second person: as “you” rather than “I”.